The record-breaking leak from the Shanghai National Police (SHGA) spurred Chinese-language activity and China-based data leaks.

The 23 terabyte-strong data leak with information on 1 billion Chinese nationals and several billion case records from the Shanghai police could be the largest on record.

The dataset, which includes names, addresses, birthplaces, national ID, mobile numbers, and criminal case details, was first shared on Breach Forums, marketplace hackers and threat actors use to buy and sell data.

Four weeks after the breach, researchers noted that the scale of the leak had echoed through the cyber underworld. According to Naomi Yusupov, a Chinese intelligence analyst at cybersecurity firm Cybersixgill, the English-speaking forum was flooded with Chinese users.

The observed uptick in Chinese was so great that some veteran forum users complained the platform would be overwhelmed by the newcomers, asking to ban the newbies. Instead, the forums’ administrator posted a message, saying that the Shanghai police leak was no longer sold on Breach Forums.

Shanghai police breach awakens Chinese underground